In , people were employed in pharmaceutical-producing companies . in the Pharmaceutical Price Ordinance ( Arzneimittelpreisverordnung). Seit sinkt die Zahl der Apotheken in Deutschland. Filialstruktur 05 . in der Arzneimittelpreisverordnung leicht angepasst. Index ( = ). wird in Deutschland durch die Arzneimittelpreisverordnung reguliert. and debt crisis, in particular in the second half of and
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An additional responsibility of the association is representing the economic and professional interests of the SHI physicians. These organizations all report to the Federal Ministry of Health, which drafts laws, regulations and administrative provisions, and is responsible for supervising subordinate federal agencies and appointing an expert commission to evaluate the development of public health. If approved to do so by the association of SHI physicians, the SHI physician may employ assistant doctors in training or another physician in arzneimittelpreisverordnnung same field of expertise.
The hospitals are represented at state level by associations of the funding bodies of approved hospitals.
Until such a point, the qrzneimittelpreisverordnung is obliged to contribute to the treatment costs. Published online Dec Furthermore, materials used for diagnosis on or in the human body, or which replace bodily fluids e. The remuneration is paid as lump sums 2009 so-called service packages, which include several frequently required nursing services [ 13 ]. In this system, the health insurance companies are obliged to transfer all premiums, excluding supplementary charges, to the federal bank.
In turn, these contractually obligate healthcare providers and facilities to deliver the services.
The statutory health funds are not permitted to operate on a for-profit basis and excess contributions must be reimbursed to insurees generally in the form of premium reductions. They can also demand additional risk premiums or exclude particular services from the contract with limited exceptions. Compulsory health insurance was introduced for all residents in the Federal Republic of Germany on 1 st January The 17 state pharmacy associations are statutory corporations that represent professional policy interests, support the state authorities in the monitoring of medicine safety and quality and together comprise the federal pharmacy association.
In return for assuming responsibility for the service guarantee contract, the SHI-approved hospitals have a right to remuneration from the health insurance companies for the services provided, as well as public investment funding from the state government. Since 1 st Januarynew insurees also have a right to a uniformly calculated basic tariff that corresponds to the SHI benefits catalogue. Other relevant factors include the reason for referral, age, sex, weight at time of intake for infantsnumber of hours of artificial respiration, duration of hospitalization and reason for discharge.
Joining the SHI scheme, as opposed to the private system, is obligatory for individuals, whose income is below a legally specified amount income threshold in The German Drugs Act Arzneimittelgesetz, AMG regulates the manufacture, approval and dispensing of medicine, as well as government monitoring of drug supply.
Arzneimittel-Festbeträge – GKV-Spitzenverband
Narcotics are subject to the narcotics law and may only be distributed under special rules and documentation. Features include a uniform monthly basic flat rate The state authorities responsible for the hospital planning and the investment program are the social security or health ministries.
Nursing care premiums are calculated based on income and are paid jointly by members and their employers. In this case, new physicians can only practice in the district by joining existing surgeries or practices, either by taking the practice over or by forming a joint practice.
They specify the rights and duties of physicians in a professional code of conduct, and define continuing education requirements for specialist training. For instance, the hospitals have to a arzneimittelpreiwverordnung under the continual medical management of physicians, b have sufficient diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities to meet the terms of the hospital provision contract, c work according to scientifically recognized methods, d which can be applied by around-the-clock medical, nursing, arzneimittelprsisverordnung and technical staff, e to diagnose, cure, arrest and alleviate illness or provide obstetrics, primarily through physician and nursing care, f and which can provide patients with room and board.
Furthermore, all parties, including the insured, the various associations and the funding bodies, are entitled to legally appeal the decisions reached by the associations and government authorities as part of the service guarantee contract.
If a planning district is undersupplied, the associations of SHI physicians are obliged to take appropriate counter-measures by motivating physicians to open surgeries in these areas e. Nursing insurance encompasses and organizes the tasks of the ambulatory and nursing treatment.
To prevent the insurance premiums from increasing too steeply with age and the associated higher arzneimittelprrisverordnung, the private insurers charge younger members higher contribution rate arzneimittelpreisvrordnung necessary for their age and condition of health aging provision. The health insurers compensate the SHI-approved treatment arznimittelpreisverordnung its members as lump sums per insuree, negotiated with and paid to the association of SHI physicians.
Women Men 1 Live births according to place of birthMental and behavioral disorders due to alcohol2 Heart failureLive births according to place of birth3 Malignant neoplasm of the breast [mammary]Angina pectoris4 CholelithiasisHeart failure5 Essential primary hypertensionHernia inguinalis6 Gonarthrosis [knee osteoarthritis]Chronic ischemic heart disease7 StrokeAcute myocardial infarction8 Femur fractureMalignant neoplasm of lung and bronchus9 Perineal tear during birthCerebral injury10 Atrial flutter and fibrillationAtrial flutter and fibrillationThese self-administration committees report to the state.
The associations also represent the interests of the SHI physicians in the public sphere and have input in important health policy decisions at state level. Das Informationssystem der Gesundheitsberichterstattung des Bundes.
The German healthcare system
The premiums are subject to the same income thresholds as for statutory health insurance and family members arzneiimittelpreisverordnung also insured for free. Hospital planning is based, on the one hand, on a needs assessment of the current and projected requirement for hospital services, and, on the other hand, on an evaluation of whether the existing staffing and infrastructure can be expected to meet the identified need for services.
A SHI insuree is free to seek treatment in any SHI-approved hospital, regardless of whether it is specified in the hospital plan.
In return, the insuree receives benefits-in-kind in the form of nursing and domestic services from the nursing facilities or a nursing care allowance a combination of services and cash is also possible. Within arzneimittelpreisvwrordnung SHI system, the insuree can choose between various health insurance companies and has also been free to switch between funds since Only employees whose regular income is above the insurance threshold, civil servants, clergy, private school teachers, pensioners and the self-employed can choose the private health insurance system over the SHI scheme.
Number of statutory and private health insurance funds and insurees in Germany [ 1 ].
In this scheme, the insuree, not the insurance company, is the contractual partner of the individual health service providers. Both the state and federal associations are financed by member contributions, which are deducted by the associations for each SHI physician from the lump sum compensation paid by the health insurers [ 127910 ].
Potential inpatients are entitled to preliminary information in easily understood language, which must explain the services, the available additional services which have to be remunerated separately on a user-pays basisfees and the results of quality monitoring.
At state level, this includes the state committee of physicians and health insurers the committee seats are occupied in equal measure by physicians and health insurers and decides whether a planning district is over- or under-suppliedthe approvals committee again, occupied in equal measure by physicians and health insurers and decides on applications for SHI-approval statusthe appointments committee and justice of peace officials.
The state meets this obligation by issuing quality standards and monitoring drug manufacturing, distribution and dispensing. As all residents are obliged to have health insurance, nursing insurance applies not only to SHI insurees social nursing insurance but also the private health insurees private mandatory nursing insurance.
Statutory Health arzneimittelpreixverordnung in Germany Compulsory health insurance was introduced for all residents in the Federal Republic of Germany on 1 st January SHI insurees are entitled to the provision of medically necessary drugs. A little over than arzneimittelpreisverordnubg A voluntary member of the SHI scheme can only switch to the PHI system if their earnings have been above the compulsory insurance threshold for three consecutive calendar years.
A defined proportion of the lump-sum compensation is assigned to each SHI physician. Igl G, Welti F. Only in extremely serious diseases and under strict conditions arzneimittelprdisverordnung non-prescription medicines be prescribed for coverage by the statutory health insurance company.
While hospital physicians usually carry out the hospital treatment, general practitioners, if SHI-approved and with special authorization from the association of SHI physicians, can also treat patients on an inpatient basis—a provision that is limited to hospitals or hospital capacity also authorized for arzzneimittelpreisverordnung purpose.
The association has a duty to the health insurers to ensure that the SHI-approved treatment fulfills the contractual requirements.