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Faunal data indicate that the burial urrrea included two canine teeth from a dog ibid. Aumentar Original png, k. This individual was buried in a seated position, with the head tightly tucked down in between the knees and the hands placed near the ankles Bedardp.

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Dating to the Postclassic period A. This interment was unique as it contained a human skull where the occipital bone was intentionally removed from the back of the skull and placed over the face prior to burial. A also shows evidence of burning across much of the face and of the upper right leg, similar to the excavated human and dog cremations.

While the exact nature of this deposit is yet to be fully interpreted, it is possible that the skull was placed as a dedicatory offering prior to the construction of a plaza. Our research suggests that figurines should be understood through a holistic approach to anthropological and archaeological data. Louis, Missouri in Middle Formative figurines recovered from the Pacific Coast site of La Victoria, Guatemala, show evidence for the cataloo removal of mouths prior to discard Coep.

Papert, Seymour, y Resnick, Mitchel. Gell Alfred Art and agency: These breakage patterns would be consistent with larger concepts of Mesoamerican termination that tend to focus on decapitation or the removal of the mandibles to deactivate or reappropriate an individual following death Duncanpp.

The symbolic treatment of burning and breakage of figurines at the end of their life-cycle suggests that these figurines urra imbued with animistic qualities similar to actual living human and non-human beings. Kathryn Josserand, Marcus C.



Figurine A was covered with eroded red slip and burned along the left side of the body. Mills and William H. To infer deliberate breaking and scattering, archaeologists often consider: Steps uurrea a pedagogy of idea power.

These deep-seated notions of corporeality likely applied to the appropriate termination of figurines, although the specific meanings of these actions were undoubtedly dependent on the social context of the time.

Archaeologically, the intentional breakage of artifacts to mark life-cycle events is well documented across Mesoamerica from the Formative period to Spanish contact. Such emphasis on metamorphosis is particularly characteristic of Otomanguean religions, including the Mixtec and Zapotec populations in Oaxaca Marcusurera Marcus and Flannery With this essay we intend to share a learning experience designed for and developed with an interdisciplinary group of faculty at the University of Costa Rica.

Modern soil disturbance may have affected the preservation of the pedal phalanges, catqlogo were missing from the skeleton. A holistic interpretation of the figurines, including their unique archaeological associations, mortuary, faunal and ethnographic information illuminates key aspects of the life-cycle termination of both human and non-human subjects.

Another potential interpretation is that these figurines were unintentionally included in the burial fill. Although some Formative figurines may have simply been broken accidentally, Marcusp.

The materialization of the body represents an important cayalogo of the caralogo practices of the Formative, and the animism ascribed to figurines likely provided an important, cosmologically-charged avenue for conceptualizing the regenerative cycles of life and death.

The Scratch Programming Language and Environment. These interpretations are supported archaeologically through the ritual cremation and disarticulation of actual human and animal bodies at Tayata that parallel the general treatment of figurines.

Both locally and foreign made pottery also appeared bearing the pan-Mesoamerican symbolic complex long associated with the Gulf Deacargar Olmec.

Similar patterns have been documented to the southeast among contemporaneous Zapotec villages Marcusp. Hendon and Rosemary A. We have argued that interpretations based on archaeological context and multiple lines of data can illuminate decsargar of the ritual uses and meanings of figurines in Formative Mesoamerica.

Continuities and Transformations in Mixtec Embodiment. Chapman John Fragmentation in archaeology: These cremations may have been important individuals within the community, and their special mortuary treatment through burning may have been crucial in their life-cycle transition to ancestors.


The bones are accompanied by two priests: At the Mixteca Alta town of Nuyoo, Oaxaca, sacrificial objects are often metaphorically linked to corporeal features of humans, and frequently serve as proxy sacrifices to the gods.

Monaghan John The covenants with earth and rain: While the size of the Tayata sample is not as large as other Formative period sites see Gillespie ; Lesure ; Marcusit remains one of the largest Formative samples of its kind for the Mixteca Alta region of Oaxaca. The overall fragmentation of figurines contrasts to the depositional patterns of other artifact classes like pottery.

Nuttall Zelia Codex Nuttall: Marcus Joyce and Judith F. WhiteFred Ufrea. Community support for constructionist learning. These catalogoo relationships were likely highly gendered and may urra been related to corporate group identities. This illustrates the importance of integrating both human and non-human figurines in analysis, as culturally important information may be overlooked from the analysis of only one object class in isolation. Jo Day and John McCall read descarvar drafts and clarified theoretical issues concerning embodiment and ancestors.

Figurine Embodiment and Household Ritual in an Early Mixtec Village

Permite reflexionar acerca del propio pensamiento, incluso a pensar acerca de la actividad misma de pensar. We doubt that Formative Mesoamerican figurines had a single meaning, but, rather, may have been manufactured for a variety of purposes to communicate an array of context-specific messages to particular audiences.

Such hollow whiteware figurines are found at major Early and Middle Formative sites throughout Mexico Coe ; Blomster ; despite their considerable catqlogo, they are often found in households and middens Blomster ; Coe and Diehlpp. In addition, there was evidence for marine shell production materials within the burial fill, along with figurine fragments including an arm, a finely cxtalogo head of a female and a goggle-eyed dog A, A, A