Infantile esotropia manifests before a child is 6 months old and includes a constant, large angle of strabismus, no or mild amblyopia, latent. Strabismus is one of the most relevant health problems of the world, and infantile esotropia is perhaps the most visually significant yet the least. The term congenital esotropia is often used interchangeably with infantile esotropia, but few cases are actually noted at birth. Often the exact.

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There is a hereditary component with infantile occuring much more common in the children of families with monofixation syndrome.

Osseous and Soft Tissue Approaches. If amblyopia is present with cross-fixation the alternation will not take place at midline; the sound eye will maintain fixation into abduction. Detailed history taking regarding birth weight, complications of birth, the health of the child and developmental milestones may help in the management of the case. After surgical realignment, patients are usually advised to return within 2 weeks following surgery to assess eye alignment and the ocular healing process.

Binasal occlusion can be used to discourage cross-fixation. Views Read Edit View history. Claude Worth believed that infantile esotropia was a congenital defect in fusion faculty, suggesting that despite correction, patients with infantile esotropia could never achieve good binocular vision.


It is a specific sub-type of esotropia and has been a subject of much debate amongst ophthalmologists with regard to its naming, diagnostic features, and treatment. Surgery performed prior to 2 years of age has been found to give better visual prognosis.

Amblyopia is poor vision in an eye that is structurally normal. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

The slow phase is toward the side of the occluded eye. Ptosis is also frequently observed.

They also have palpebral fissure narrowing of the affected eye on adduction. Most Viewed content is not available. It should be mentioned that a moderate number of patients will require additional surgery at some point in their lives to achieve adequate and stable alignment.

If a child has equal vision and cross-fixates, they have no need to abduct either eye and the examiner will note alternation at midline. Latent nystagmus is frequently seen in patients with infantile esotropia.

Many infants may freely alternate their fixation. The patient was born full term by normal spontaneous vaginal delivery without complications. Link to strabismus surgery entry. What issues are related to a higher risk for developing infantile esotropia?

If there is no oblique dysfunction, shifting the medial rectus muscles at time of recession towards the apex of the pattern will weaken the effective pull of the medial rectus at the apex, decreasing the amount of V or A pattern.

– Ophthalmology – The University of Iowa

Should any significant refractive errors be detected, the full cycloplegic refraction should be prescribed. Multiple surgeries may be needed to correct large angle esotropia. Infantile esotropia begins at birth or during the first year of life. Normally, the light reflex should be located near the center of the cornea. Accomodative esotropia manifests as eye inturning secondary to the increased work of focusing through significant hypermetropia.


Infantile esotropia

Therefore, they will have poor depth perception and atypical appearance. DVD dissociated vertical deviationinferior oblique overaction, and latent nystagmus. Wright; Yi Ning J.

Effect of gestational age and birth weight on the risk of strabismus among premature infants. Privacy policy Endogropia EyeWiki Disclaimers. Sensory esotropia Sensory esotropia can be seen in patients with poor vision. This remains undetermined at the present time. Some surgeons treat amblyopia before performing surgery to create a stronger visual drive for straight eyes and thus better outcomes.

Infantkl patient cross-fixates, that is, to fixate objects on the left, the patient looks across the nose with the right eye, and vice versa. The modified-Krimsky method involves holding prisms before the fixating eye or splitting prism between the two eyes.