FosfoenolPiruvato. AH Universidad del mar. La enzima fosfoenolpiruvato carboxilasa. Fecha de consulta: 13/Noviembre/ Consultado. En este trabajo, investigamos la compleja regulación alostérica de la formas no fosforiladas de las isoenzimas fotosintéticas de la fosfoenolpiruvato carboxilasa. Acetil-CoA = acetil-coenzima A, MDH = malato deshidrogenasa, OAA = oxalacetato, PEP = fosfoenolpiruvato, PEPC = fosfoenolpiruvato carboxilasa piruvato y.

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Citrate release and activity of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in roots of white lupin in response to varying phosphorus supply.

Rates in the absence of PEP were negligible. The standard assay medium, final volume of 0. Six of these sequences are from monocot plants and the other seven from dicot plants. EDTA ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt was from Merck.

Activation by Gly helps in increasing the flux through the C4 pathway by effectively counteracting the inhibitory effects of malate, and, therefore, it helps in increasing the concentrations of CO2 in the bundle sheet cells thus overcoming photorespiration. Once the levels of malate are high, saturation of the Glc6P allosteric site would give only a marginal advantage. The neutral amino acid binding site is not yet known because no structure with this kind of ligand has been determined so far.

Naturecarboxioasa, Kinetic data were analyzed by nonlinear regression calculations using a commercial computing program formulated with the algorithm of Marquardt [35]. Barranca del Muerto Carboxilasz. The figure was created with PyMOL [41]. The differences between the two enzymes in the degree of cooperativity in the binding of PEP in the presence of a fosfoenlopiruvato malate concentration are in full agreement with their differences in malate affinity.

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When near physiological concentrations were used, Glc6P was very ineffective in overcoming malate inhibition [14].

Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase extraction, purification and assay Plants were kept in darkness for at least 6 h prior to extraction.

Protein was measured by the method of Bradford [33], using bovine serum albumin as the standard. Initial velocity data depending upon varied concentration of substrate were fitted to a Hill equation equation 1: The allosteric transition would not occur in the amaranth enzyme, thus accounting for the huge differences between the amaranth and the maize enzymes in their carboxllasa of activation achieved at saturation by Gly.

In leaves of C4 plants the initial reaction in the assimilation pathway of fosfoenoopiruvato CO 2 is the essentially irreversible carboxylation of phospho eno lpyruvate PEP by phospho eno lpyruvate carboxylase orthophosphate: In this loop there are several amino acid residues that are conserved, or with conservative substitutions, within each group of monocots or dicots enzymes, but that differ from one group fisfoenolpiruvato the other marked with an asterisk in Figure 3.

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These two limiting concentrations of tPEP are close to those existing in the cytosol of the mesophyll cells during the fosfoenolpkruvato and light periods, respectively [22, 23].

One unit of PEPC is defined as the amount of enzyme needed to catalyze the formation of 1 umol of oxalacetate per min under our experimental conditions. The bicarbonate concentration in an assay medium in contact with air at pH 7. Plant material Plants of maize Zea mays L. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase extraction, purification and assay. All the contents of this journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License.

Glc6P binds cooperatively to both enzymes, with h values close to 2. To demonstrate that citrate excretion by roots is an event more sensitive to P concentration than PEPCase, the activity of the enzyme extracted from roots of white lupines growing in soil as well as its activity and citrate release in plants growing in a nutrient solution were measured. The overall identity among monocot isoenzymes ranged from 80 to Accepted June 8, All other chemicals of analytical grade were from standard suppliers.

Therefore, the two kinds of activators act as metabolic signals that indicate the necessity of increasing the flux through the C4 cycle, in order to keep pace with the flux rate of the Calvin cycle in the case of Glc6P, or to increase the supply of CO 2 to the bundle sheath cells to prevent photorespiration, in the case of Gly.

The concentration of phosphorylated sugars increases when the Calvin cycle is active.

Photorespiration surely follows the buildup of malate during the day because of a decrease of the C4 cycle flux, a decrease due to both PEPC inhibition by the increased malate concentration and depletion of the available CO 2 by a very active Calvin cycle.

This is consistent with competition between inhibitor and activator for their binding to the enzyme. The points in the figures are the experimentally determined values, whereas the curves are calculated from fits of these data to the appropriate equation. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase assay and kinetic studies. Plants were kept in darkness for at least 6 h prior to extraction. The best fits were determined by the relative fit error, error of the constants and absence of significant correlation between the residuals, and other relevant variables like observed velocities, substrate concentration and data number.


We display the results of the kinetics of saturation of the enzyme by its substrate PEP by considering tPEP as the variable substrate, instead of MgPEP, to facilitate the evaluation of the data in the physiological range of concentration of this metabolite. Amaranth Amaranthus hypochondriacus L.

In the experiments in which the concentration of the activator was varied at constant concentration of substrates, equation 2 was used: Progressive multiple sequence alignment was carried out with the ClustalX package [38], fosfoenolpiruvwto penalties based on secondary structure. It has been propoosed that one of the functions of fosfpenolpiruvato enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase PEPCase in the roots of white lupines consists in providing the carbon required to support the significant quantity of citrate that is excreted by P-starved plants.

In the homology models of both enzymes, these parts are forming loops, as expected. Plants of maize Zea mays L. Sequence alignments and homology model building. Both types of isoenzymes also differ in their affinity for the substrate PEP, the activator Glc6P and the inhibitor malate. The lack of activation by Gly of the dicot isoenzymes is mainly compensated by their higher affinity for the substrate PEP and their lower affinity for the inhibitor malate than those exhibited by the monocot isoenzymes.


Although the S 0. Also, because regulation of PEPC activity by metabolite vosfoenolpiruvato is mostly exerted at subsaturating concentrations of substrate [21], in the studies with the allosteric effectors we used a fixed total PEP tPEP concentration of only 0.

No exogenous bicarbonate was added to the assay media, so that the concentration of bicarbonate was 0. The models were validated using ProCheck [40].

The same solution was always obtained after repeated submissions of the data to this server. When the concentration of inhibitor was varied at constant concentration of substrates, the experimental data were fitted to equation 3: Fully expanded leaves were used for the experiments. This is consistent with a lack of effect of malate on the binding of Glc6P and, reciprocally, a lack of effect of Glc6P on the binding of malate.