Marija Gimbutas believed that the expansion of the Kurgan culture was conducted as a series of hostile, military conquests. Gimbutas wrote. The territory delineated by as as Kurgan territory abounds with “ unexplained” toponyms etymologized to “undefined” languages of the. Lithuanian/American archaeologist Marija Gimbutas () posits that the beginnings of patriarchy in Europe in light of Gimbutas’ Kurgan Theory which.

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Marija Gimbutas and the expansion of the “Kurgan people” based on tumulus-building cultures

Two silver earrings and red ochre were found at the head. Hundreds of sites in the best explored area, the Middle Danube basin, particularly in Hungary and western Slovakia, afford a good opportunity to follow the cultural development at this critical period of European prehistory. A round platform in the middle was plastered with clay That is the place for the funeral feast.

A schematic animal, possibly a horse, is separated by two dashes from the group of human figures. The gijbutas were small the largest were 3. India underwent numerous conquests by the Kurgan people, and a chain of Kurgan-derived dynasties. The hill was surrounded by two stone walls.

These migrations are then related to early LPIE-speaking migrants spreading after ca. On a purely linguistic aspect, there are strong Hattic and Hurrian influences on Anatolian languagesrepresenting a unique layer that clearly differentiates them from LPIE languages, pointing also to different substrates behind each attested Common Anatolian branch or individual language:. Agriculture, however, seems to have been only supplementary to an essentially stock breeding economy in which cattle were of paramount importance.

Frederik Kortlandt gimbutaas proposed a revision of the Kurgan model.


Diameter of the kurgan 13 m. During the Pit Grave culture c. Ancestry is not people, and it is certainly not language. According to this model, the Kurgan culture gradually expanded until it encompassed the entire Pontic—Caspian steppe, Kurgan IV being identified with the Yamnaya culture of around BC. The main impetus for both directions was trade: Rather, the shapes of bronze artifacts have analogies in the north Caucasus, in Transcaucasia, and the Near East.

The Impact on Western Europe: For this group — who were closely related linguistically and culturally to early Khvalynsk — to remain isolated in or around the Northern Kuragni.

Gold and Prosperity in the Third Millennium Cal. There was a large apsidal house, 15 m long, on the eastern part of the hill and traces of other houses on the other part. Nowadays, English is the language spoken in institutions, Maltese has an official status before the EU, while Saami is official in its country, Basque is only official in its territory, and Piedmontese, Asturian, Breton, and the majority of EU regional languages are only privately and locally defended.

Other early kurgans contained inhumation graves in shafts covered by stone slabs, under a cairn of stones and a pile of earth. Mikhailovka I ceramics are typified by globular amphorae with rounded or flat bases and cylindrical necks wound with cord impressions; semiglobular tureens also occur. Triangular copper dagger blades, with or without the mid-rib and with two rivet holes and halberds, are known from the engravings on Valcamonica stelae see figs.

gimbutas –

kugan Direct evidence of the incursion of horse-riding warriors is found, not only in single burials of males under barrows, but in the emergence of a whole complex of Kurgan cultural traits: Pontic from the people described for Kvalynsk and Early Pit Gravers.


About Vucedol sites have been reported, all clustered in essentially the same territory as the Baden sites. The ruling families had their own smiths who produced the best tools and weapons of the time. Almost all of the arguments for invasion and cultural transformations are far better explained without reference to Kurgan expansions, and most of the evidence so far presented is either totally contradicted by other evidence, or is gi,butas result of gross misinterpretation of the cultural history of Eastern, Central, and Northern Gimhutas.

Clearly, both traditions contributed to Vucedol art and symbolism. He does not include the Maykop culture among those jurgan he considers to be IE-speaking, presuming instead that they spoke a Caucasian language. The red area corresponds to the area that may have been settled by Indo-European-speaking peoples up to c. The acropolis was the center of many activities including the manufacture of tools and weapons of stone, bone, antler, copper, and bronze, typical throughout the Baden-Ezero culture.

The Kurgan culture was so broadly defined that almost any culture with burial mounds, or even like the Baden culture fimbutas them could be included. This was used by Archi to speculatively locate the state of Armiin or near Ebla territory, which could correspond with the region of modern north-western Syria:.

Nevertheless, it is apparent that the emergence of the Globular Amphora culture in the north European plain is crucial to an understanding of the Indo-Europeanization of this part of Europe.