Heterodoxus spiniger (Enderlein, ) on domestic dogs (Canis familiaris, L. ) from the city of Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil. Heterodoxus spiniger Enderlein, G. Usage: valid. Reference: Anopluren ( Siphunculaten) und Mallophagen 79 – Authors: Enderlein, G. Number: 2. Pages. Trop Biomed. Jun;29(2) The dog louse Heterodoxus spiniger from stray cats in Penang, Malaysia. Norhidayu S(1), Mohd Zain SN, Jeffery J, Lewis.

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Fire and grazing are important in the long-term maintenance of grasslands.

Canine filariasis on Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands. Informal report to the th meeting of the Helminthological society of Washington, May 17, However, sick, very old cats, or long-hair breeds may suffer from their infestations with this louse [2].

Parasitic Insects, Mites and Ticks: Genera of Medical and Veterinary Importance/Chewing lice

Heterodoxus spiniger was originally identified in Australia on the wallaby, but typically infests only canines. It is also the intermediate host to several helminth parasites of dogs including the tapeworm, Dipylidium caninumand the filarid nematode, Dipetalonema reconditum Price and Graham, Accessed Date Unknown at http: The lice may penetrate the blood vessels at base of feathers, leading to anemia. Journal of Helminthology The body is covered with small hairs called setae that help hold the louse on to its host.

In addition, Heterodoxus spiniger carries the filarid nematode Dipetalonema reconditumwhich parasitizes domestic dogs Price and Graham, Cuclotogaster heterographus Head-louse infests chickens on the skin and feathers of their head; sometimes extending onto the neck [5]. These lice have no blood-sucking mouthparts. This species is the most damaging of the bird lice [7].

The dog louse Heterodoxus spiniger from stray cats in Penang, Malaysia.

Like other members of the family Boopiidaethese lice have two claws on each pretarsus, unlike species in the Ischnoceran family Trichodectidae which may parasitize domestic animals. A large change in the spinger or structure of an animal that happens as the animal grows.

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From Wikibooks, open books for an open world. Heavy infestations in young birds may be highly damaging but this louse is rarely a severe spkniger to adult birds. Infestations are usually slight, but heavy infestations damage the plumage and cause restlessness leading to reduced productivity of poultry [4]. In dune areas vegetation is also sparse and conditions are dry.

Heterrodoxus egg hatches, and goes through three nymphal instars including molts in between the stages that resemble the adults, but are smaller and slightly paler in color. Connect with us Help us improve the site by taking our survey. The dog becomes infected when it ingests infected lice that it has groomed off [3]. Lice in this group are similar in feeding habits to the ischnoceran lice because heherodoxus feed with chewing mouthparts.

Young birds are particularly harmed by these lice; infestations can build up rapidly, leaving the birds weak and even killing them. This species may need to be distinguished from Trichodectes canis on dogs in countries where both species of chewing lice occur.

Behavior Heterodoxus spiniger spends most of its life on one host, but can move from host to host as needed. Menopon gallinae Shaft-louse infests chickens, turkeys and ducks on their breast and thigh feathers.

It appears to also feed on blood, as many individuals were observed with blood in their guts Nelson, It also infests wild canids.

It feeds only on the feathers and these lice can be seen in rows clasping a feather shaft [8]. This species may need to be distinguished from Heterodoxue spiniger on dogs in countries where both species of chewing lice occur. Note that in spinigef to an infestation of sheep with psoroptic scab mites Bovicola lice do not directly cause the skin to form moist scabs, the surface of the skin will appear intact, although with heavy infestations self-grooming may damage the skin.

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Price and Graham, Irritation and pruritus leads to restless self-grooming. The host relations of the Boopiidae.

Heterodoxus spiniger | insect |

Heterodoxus spiniger has an unusual evolutionary history. Lice reach sexual maturity about three to four weeks after they are laid as nits. Neotropical living in the southern part of the New World. Journal of Medical Entomology Colless, ; Price and Graham, ; von Keler, Nearctic living in the Nearctic biogeographic province, the northern part of the New World.

Heterodoxus spiniger

This damage is known as spot and fleck. Amin and Madbouly, ; Price and Graham, Biogeographic Regions nearctic native oriental native ethiopian native neotropical native australian native Habitat Heterodoxus spiniger inhabits the skin of domestic dogs Canis lupus familiaris and a few other canids, notably the side-striped and golden jackels Canis adustus and Canis aureus in Africa, and the coyote Canis latransred wolf Canis rufus and gray fox Urocyon cinereoargenteus in North America.

This includes Greenland, the Canadian Arctic islands, and all of heferodoxus North American as far south as the highlands of central Mexico.