Free download complete engineering seminar Iontophoresis Seminar Report pdf. Here we are giving you Iontophoresis Seminar and PPT with PDF report. All you need to do is just click on the download link and get it. Seminar on Iontophoresis Drug Delivery System .. Reports have appeared in literature showing appreciable levels of certain drugs in underlying deeper.
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Up to this p oint, reverse iontophoresis has been used primarily as a monitoring mechanism.? Reverse iontophoresis has also been proven to effectively monitor urea and sminar in in vitro experiments.
A of current are sent through the iontophorfsis when seninar iontophoresis is used in a monitoring capacity2.? The method has also been reported useful for topical anesthesia to the skin prior to cut-down for artificial kidney dialysis, insertion of tracheotomy tubes and infiltration of lidocaine into the skin prior to venipuncture.
When using iontophoresis, it is important to know that adding buffering agents performs pH adjustment. Reverse iontophoresis is a process in which molecules are removed from within the body via a negative charge on the skin that causes solvent flow towards a cation9.
Current methods of kidney dialysis are invasive and very time intensive for the patient. Iontophoresis has mainly been used for therapeutic purposes, but in combination with the laser Doppler technique, it is possible to study the influence of the drugs used on vascular bed. With the present knowledge about these processes, it is easier to select and prepare appropriate drugs and vehicles for iontophoresis than for phonophoresis.
Urea, on the other hand, is an uncharged molecule6 and moves towards either the cathode or anode through a process called electro-osmosis, which is where an EMF is created by an applied potential that drives the flow of the molecule2 Figure 1.
It was determined through this study that it is possible to remove urea through reverse iontophoresis, and the concentration of urea present at the cathode of the iontophoresis controller Figure 4 was l inearly correlated with plasma urea. The mechanism by which iontophoresis works is based upon the knowledge that like electrical charges repel. Some progress has been made in the portability of dialysis machines, however.
The delivered dose depends on the current flowing and its duration.
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Sub-dermally, the ions introduced re-combine with the existing ions floating in the blood stream, forming the necessary new compounds for therapeutic interactions. Currently the use of reverse iontophoresis has been predominantly relegated to matters involving glucose levels in the body. Application of a positive current from an electrode to a solution applied to a skin surface will drive the positively charged geport ions away from the electrode and into the iontophorfsis.
The penetration of the uncharged substances e.
We think you have liked this presentation. See that the metal plate of the electrode is evenly covered by the padding and that there are no bare edges in contact with the skin See that the covering pad is evenly soaked with tap water or saline solution Apply electrodes in good contact, with even pressure. Anti-inflammatory and anesthetic medications dexamethasone and lidocaine are the most common medications delivered using iontophoresis in physical therapy1.
Placement of the electrodes is dependent on the reprot of the medication being delivered.
Most researches have indicated that low-level amplitude is more effective than high-level intensities, as higher intensities adversely affect ionic penetration. Iontophoresis Published on Dec 06, Clearly, there is a need for a quicker, more effective and cost efficient method of removing wastes from the body when the kidneys cannot.? While increasing the current will decrease the lag time, a current of 17 to 99 mA is sufficient to kill a human being?
However, this value can be increased several times before a patient would feel pain current in the range of 17 to 99 mA is considered enough to be lethal ? The only alternative to traditional dialysis is peritoneal dialysis.? Even once the hemodialyzer is inserted into the body, one cannot have a totally normal life like most others.?
By doing so, we hypothesize that urea can be drawn directly out of the blood in a non-invasive manner.?
Tests have shown that the GlucoWatch is safe for children older than seven and that the GlucoWatch is just as accurate as traditional methods9.? Both these techniques are complicated because of other processes that occur simultaneously with the delivery of the drug. The method of iontophoresis was described by Pivati in An external energy source can be used to increase the rate of penetration of drugs through the membrane. The bulk of deposited ions is found at the site of the active electrode, where they are iontophoreais as either soluble or insoluble compound, to be depleted by the sweep of circulating blood.
The iontophorssis of direct or ilntophoresis current to be used is determined by multiplying the surface area by the time of exposure. Potassium is a positively charged molecule and moves towards the cathode via electro-migration.?
Iontophoresis or ion transfer is introduction of substances into the body for therapeutic purposes using a direct current. At a current of 0. The choice of drug is of importance depending on whether the compound is unionised or ionised.
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In our example, this means that when a positively charged drug is diluted in saline, the sodium ions will compete with the amount of drug ions to be delivered. This slightly breaks up the skin barrier and allows small of amounts of body fluid to escape.?
The method of administrating pharmacological drugs by iontophoresis became popular at the beginning of the 20th century due to the work of Leduc who introduce the word ‘iontotherapy’ and formulated the laws for this process.
It is a technique used to enhance the absorption of drugs across biological tissues, such as the skin. Not only must the current be held under this range, but there is also the psychological issue of having a current on one?
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It should be put into consideration that a few ions, ready to combine, may be better than a sum of ions, repelling each other because of their similar charges.