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To test this theory, we have calculated the line profiles for CS at 10 5 yr using the temperature profiles described in Section 6. Irram In or Create an Account. We therefore first discuss the sensitivity of the models to different chemical conditions.

This sort of behaviour has been noted in previous studies e.

For the background radiation field, we have used the standard interstellar radiation field of Mathis et al. Plot of CS spectra for 1. The temperature is assumed to remain at 10 K throughout the collapse, and the density as a function of time for each shell ira calculated by the dynamical models described in Sections 2.

The red—blue asymmetries in the lines although not strong broadly reflect the expected dependency on the excitation temperature profile. The first temperature profile we consider is that deduced from dust continuum observations of the class 0 source B Zhou et al.

This is because, as shown in Fig. However, at this t statthe inner shells are more depleted.

In order to obtain a more realistic H 2 CO abundance, sophisticated surface chemistry would have to be implemented in the model, such as that employed in Cuppen et al. Here we concentrate on the commonly used solution derived by Shuwhich was solved by finding similarity solutions to the continuity mass-conservation equation and force equation for an ideal isothermal flow. The plot clearly shows the contraction of the core, with the shells moving inwards as time progresses.

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The thick solid line shows T ex for a constant kinetic temperature profile of 10 K, using the CS abundance profile of Fig. These differences appear because the infall velocity in the core envelope of the Pavlyuchenkov et al. Thus, subject to caveats about possible degeneracies, these various characteristics may be useful in determining the dynamical structure and evolutionary status of low-mass infall regions. These reactions are assumed to occur instantly and the products remain on the grain surface until they are desorbed.

There is no mass transfer between the shells. Eventually, in the centre of the core, enough mass builds up so that the core becomes supercritical and begins to collapse on a dynamical time-scale. The gas temperature of the core, used for the chemical calculations, is 10 K.

The tail of the CEW is at the centre, where the material is approaching free-fall. The drawback of this investigation for the inside-out collapse model is that it may be unrealistic that a core would be static in the isothermal sphere configuration preceding the onset of the CEW.

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In Section 5 we describe the radiative transfer model used and how the line profiles were generated, and in Section 6 we present the resulting line profiles and also discuss their sensitivity to the temperature profile of the cores. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford.

Ages of asteroid jram with the YORP-eye method. To generate these tables, we took evenly spaced values of the radius between the innermost and outermost shells, and to obtain the abundances at each radius we interpolated between the data shown in Figs 4 and 6.

How many lightning strikes around the world? In that paper they used a Monte Carlo approach and included layering of the ice, and found that the results were significantly different to the results obtained using a simple rate equation approach.

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The species list consists of gas-phase species and 40 mantle species and the reaction network contains gas-phase reactions. Preceding this is the pre-protostellar phase [often referred to as the pre-stellar phase for brevity Ward-Thompson et al. This conclusion is important because, for kram, CS has been observed to be significantly depleted within dense cores e.

The Risk Assessment will specify the protection level 1 to 4. Once a shell gets close to the core centre, the density and velocity rapidly tend towards infinity and the solution is no longer valid.

The physical evolution of the test shells is shown in Fig. Since they took into account this depletion in their radiative transfer model, this could explain why their inside-out collapse model failed to reproduce the observations. These abundance profiles are then 242 as an input to a radiative transfer model, along with the density and velocity profiles appropriate for each collapse model. Lightning protection history What are the lightning safety measures?

However, they also indicate that, in order for CS to show the blue asymmetry, it cannot be depleted in the core centre.

The core is embedded in a cylindrical magnetic field, which evolves throughout the collapse, although its geometry always 2462 cylindrical. Material immediately above the collapsing inner region begins to fall, once the material beneath it has given way. In progress issue alert. The temperature profiles tested. For a bounded sphere, the solution breaks down once the CEW hits the boundary. What are the lightning safety measures? The model will be described in detail in SR10, but a brief summary is given below.